The KAIST Non-equilibrium Gas and Plasma Dynamics Lab (KNGPDL) focuses on developing and solving numerical methods for simulations of fluid and thermodynamics under extreme conditions. These include highly rarefied regions in space, regimes with abrupt changes in density, and hypersonics. 

The non-equilibrium nature of the flow requires a particle-based approach to analyzing each particle's movement with the help of a fundamental mathematical model called the Boltzmann equation. This approach differs from the traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs that use the Navier-Stokes equation. 

The lab focuses on numerous systems of interest, namely hypersonic vehicles, reusable rockets, and electric propulsion. As such, we are actively collaborating with other labs and the industry.